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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark one)

[X]  ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2007

OR

[ ]  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                        to                      

Commission file number 333-123708

COOPER-STANDARD HOLDINGS INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)


Delaware 20-1945088
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

39550 Orchard Hill Place Drive
Novi, Michigan 48375
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:
(248) 596-5900

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: None.

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes   [ ]    No   [X]

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes   [ ]    No   [X]

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes   [X]    No   [ ]

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. [X]

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of ‘‘large accelerated filer’’, ‘‘accelerated filer’’ and ‘‘smaller reporting company’’ in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer [ ] Accelerated filer [ ] Non-accelerated filer [X] Smaller reporting company [ ]

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes   [ ]    No   [X]

The number of the registrant’s shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share, outstanding as of March 21, 2008 was 3,483,600 shares.

The registrant’s common stock is not publicly traded.





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PART I

Item 1.    Business

The terms the ‘‘Company,’’ ‘‘Cooper-Standard,’’ ‘‘we,’’ ‘‘us,’’ and ‘‘our’’ in this Form 10-K refer to Cooper-Standard Holdings Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless the context requires otherwise.

General:

Cooper-Standard provides innovative solutions to the automotive industry. We are a leading global manufacturer of fluid handling, body sealing, and noise, vibration and harshness control (‘‘NVH’’) components, systems, subsystems, and modules, primarily for use in passenger vehicles and light trucks for global original equipment manufacturers (‘‘OEMs’’) and replacement markets. The Company conducts substantially all of its activities through its subsidiaries. The Company’s principal executive offices are located at 39550 Orchard Hill Place Drive, Novi, Michigan 48375, and its telephone number is (248) 596-5900. We also maintain a website at www.cooperstandard.com, which is not a part of this Form 10-K.

We believe that we are the largest global producer of body sealing systems, one of the two largest North American producers in the NVH control business, and the second largest global producer of the types of fluid handling products that we manufacture. Approximately 80% of our sales in 2007 were to automotive original equipment manufacturers (‘‘OEMs’’), including Ford, General Motors, Chrysler (collectively, the ‘‘Detroit 3’’), Audi, BMW, Fiat, Honda, Mercedes Benz, Porsche, PSA Peugeot Citroën, Renault/Nissan, Toyota, and Volkswagen. The remaining 20% of our 2007 sales were primarily to Tier I and Tier II automotive suppliers. In 2007, our products were found in 19 of the 20 top-selling models in North America and in 17 of the 20 top-selling models in Europe.

We operate in 69 manufacturing locations and nine design, engineering, and administrative locations in 18 countries around the world. The Company’s global locations, and the number of facilities in each country with more than one facility, are as follows:


Americas Europe Asia Pacific
Brazil Belarus Australia
Camaçari Baranovichi Adelaide
Varginha    
Sao Paulo* Belgium China
  Gent Changchun
Canada   Chongqing
Georgetown, ON Czech Republic Huai-an
Glencoe, ON Zdar Jingzhou
Mitchell, ON   Kunshan
Stratford, ON (3) France Panyu
  Argenteuil* Shanghai
Mexico Baclair Wuhu
Aguascalientes Creutzwald  
Atlacomulco Lillebonne India
Guaymas Vitré Chennai
Juarez   Ghaziabad
Saltillo Germany Gurgaon
Torreon (2) Grünberg Halol
  Hockenheim Pune
USA Lindau  
Archbold, OH Mannheim Japan
Auburn, IN Marsberg Hiroshima*
Auburn Hills, MI* Schelklingen Nagoya*
Bowling Green, OH (2)    

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Americas Europe Asia Pacific
Bremen, IN Italy Korea
East Tawas, MI Battipaglia Cheong-Ju
Fairview, MI Ciriè Incheon*
Farmington Hills, MI*   Seo-Cheon
Gaylord, MI Poland  
Goldsboro, NC (2) Bielsko-Biala  
Leonard, MI Dzierzoniow (2)  
Mt. Sterling, KY Myslenice  
New Lexington, OH Piotrkow  
Novi, MI*    
Oscoda, MI Spain  
Spartanburg, SC Getafe  
Surgoinsville, TN    
Topeka, IN United Kingdom  
  Coventry*  
* Denotes non-manufacturing locations.

Our net sales have grown from $1.8 billion for the year ended December 31, 2005, to $2.5 billion for the year ended December 31, 2007. See ‘‘Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Company Overview.’’

Some market data and other statistical information used throughout this Form 10-K is based on data available from CSM Worldwide, an independent market research firm. Other data are based on our good faith estimates, which are derived from our review of internal surveys, as well as third party sources. Although we believe all of these third party sources are reliable, we have not independently verified the information and cannot guarantee its accuracy and completeness. To the extent that we have been unable to obtain information from third party sources, we have expressed our belief on the basis of our own internal analyses and estimates of our and our competitors’ products and capabilities. The Company’s principal shareholders are affiliates of The Cypress Group L.L.C. and GS Capital Partners 2000, L.P., whom we refer to as our ‘‘Sponsors.’’ Each of the Sponsors, including their respective affiliates, currently owns approximat ely 49.2% of the equity of Cooper-Standard Holdings Inc. See ‘‘Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.’’

Acquisition History

On December 23, 2004, Cooper-Standard Holdings Inc. acquired the automotive segment of Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (the ‘‘2004 Acquisition’’) and began operating the business on a stand-alone basis primarily through its principal operating subsidiary, Cooper-Standard Automotive Inc. See ‘‘Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data’’ (especially Notes 8 and 17, respectively) for further descriptions of the Senior Notes, Senior Subordinated Notes, and Senior Credit Facilities and of the equity contributions relating to the 2004 Acquisition.

In July 2005, the Company acquired Gates Corporation’s Enfriamientos de Automoviles manufacturing operations in Atlacomulco, Mexico (the ‘‘Atlacomulco business’’). The Atlacomulco business manufactures low pressure heating and cooling hose, principally for the OEM automotive market.

In February 2006, the Company acquired the automotive fluid handling systems business of ITT Industries, Inc. (‘‘FHS’’ or the ‘‘FHS business’’). See ‘‘Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data’’ (especially Note 3).

In March 2007, the Company acquired Automotive Components Holdings’ El Jarudo manufacturing operations located in Juarez, Mexico (the ‘‘El Jarudo business’’). The El Jarudo business manufactures automotive fuel rails.

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In August 2007, the Company completed the acquisition of nine Metzeler Automotive Profile Systems sealing systems operations in Germany, Italy, Poland, Belarus, and Belgium, and a joint venture interest in China (‘‘MAPS’’ or the ‘‘MAPS business’’) from Automotive Sealing Systems S.A. (‘‘ASSSA’’). See ‘‘Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data’’ (especially Note 3).

In December 2007, the Company acquired the 74% joint venture interest of ASSSA in Metzeler Automotive Profiles India Private Limited (‘‘MAP India’’), a leading manufacturer of automotive sealing products in India. See ‘‘Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data’’ (especially Note 3).

Strategy:

We intend to build on our position as one of the world’s leading automotive suppliers of body sealing, NVH control and fluid handling components and systems by focusing on the following key strategic areas:

Strengthening relationships with the Detroit 3 and expanding relationships with other OEMs

We plan to strengthen our leading positions with the Detroit 3 while aggressively pursuing additional business opportunities with New American Manufacturers (‘‘NAMs’’) and European and Asian OEMs. The Detroit 3 are long established, highly valued customers with revenue streams spread among all platform categories, including cars, light trucks, and SUVs. However, we believe NAMs and European and Asian OEMs will provide significant opportunities to further grow our business, especially as Asian OEMs have been rapidly penetrating North American and European markets, and Asian markets are relatively young and growing at a higher rate than other automotive markets. In particular, China’s light vehicle market is projected to grow at an 11% compound annual growth rate (‘‘CAGR’’) between 2007 and 2012, according to CSM Worldwide estimates, which will make it the world’s fastest growing market.

To further strengthen our customer relationships, we plan to continue to focus on our program management capabilities, engineering excellence, and customer service, and to utilize our technological and design capabilities to enhance the value we offer our customers. We will continue to seek customer feedback with respect to quality manufacturing, design and engineering, delivery, and after-sales support in an effort to provide the highest level of customer service and responsiveness. We believe our efforts have been successful to date and we continue to be awarded content on the Detroit 3’s most important platforms. We have also achieved several recent successes with other OEMs, such as Nissan, Toyota, Honda, Audi, and Volkswagen. Further, our acquisition of MAPS diversified our customer base with significant new volume with key customers such as Fiat, BMW, Daimler and Volkswagen Group. In Asia, and particularly in China, we have been successful in enterin g new markets and are developing a substantial manufacturing and marketing presence to serve local OEMs and to follow our customers as they expand into these markets. We operate eight manufacturing locations in China, which provide products and services to both Chinese OEMs and our traditional customers.

Targeting high-volume vehicle platforms and increasing content per vehicle

We intend to target high-volume platforms and to maximize the amount of content we provide to each platform. We expect that high-volume platforms will allow us to efficiently gain market share, create greater economies of scale, and provide more opportunities to realize cost savings from our Lean initiatives program, an internally developed program intended to optimize manufacturing by eliminating waste, controlling cost and enhancing productivity. Supplying OEMs’ high-volume platforms is increasingly important because OEMs are using fewer platforms to cover a greater number of vehicle models. Maximizing content-per-vehicle is important not only to increase revenue per vehicle, but also to increase our relative importance to the platform and strengthen our customer relationships with the OEMs which continue to consolidate their supplier base.

By leveraging our extensive product portfolio and providing superior customer service and product innovations, we have been and expect to continue to be successful in winning significant business on high-volume platforms.

Developing new modular solutions and other value-added products

We believe that significant opportunities exist to grow our current portfolio of products, including components as well as complete sub-systems, modules, and assemblies, by continuing to design, develop,

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and launch new products that distinguish us from our competitors. As a leader in design, engineering, and technical capabilities, we are able to focus on improving products, developing new technologies, and implementing more efficient processes in each of our product lines. Our body sealing products, which are part of our body & chassis product portfolio, are visible to vehicle passengers and can enhance the vehicle’s aesthetic appeal, in addition to creating a barrier to wind, precipitation, dust, and noise. Our noise, vibration and harshness control products, which are also part of our body & chassis products, are a fundamental part of the driving experience and can be important to the vehicle quality. Our fluid handling modules and sub-systems are designed to increase functionality and decrease cost to the OEM, which can be the deciding factor in winning new business.

To remain a leader in new product innovation, we will continue to invest in research and development and to focus on new technologies, materials, and designs. We believe that extensive use of Design for Six Sigma and other development strategies and techniques has led to some of our most successful recent product innovations, including our ESP Thermoplastic Glassruns (body & chassis), a proprietary plastics-to-aluminum overmolding process (fluid handling), and our Truck Tuff Hydromounts (body & chassis). Examples of successful modular innovations include engine cooling systems, fuel and brake systems, and exhaust gas recirculation modules in our fluid handling product category, and Daylight Opening Modules in our body & chassis category.

Selectively pursuing complementary acquisitions and alliances

We intend to selectively pursue acquisitions, joint ventures, and technology alliances to enhance our customer base, geographic penetration, market diversity, scale, and technology. Consolidation is an industry trend and is encouraged by OEMs’ desire for fewer supplier relationships. We believe joint ventures allow us to penetrate new markets with less relative risk and capital investment. Technology alliances are important because they are an effective way to share development costs, best-practices, and specialized knowledge.

We believe we have a strong platform for growth through acquisitions based on our past integration successes, experienced management team, global presence, and operational excellence. We also operate through several successful joint ventures and technical alliances, including those with Nishikawa Rubber Company, Zhejiang Saiyang Seal Products Co., Ltd. (‘‘Saiyang Sealing’’), Guyoung Technology Co. Ltd. (‘‘Guyoung’’), Hubei Jingda Precision Steel Tube Industry Co., Ltd. (‘‘Jingda’’), Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (‘‘SAIC’’) and Toyoda Gosei Co., Ltd. (‘‘Toyoda Gosei’’).

In July of 2005, we acquired the Atlacomulco business. The business manufactures low pressure heating and cooling hose, principally for the OEM automotive market.

In February of 2006, we furthered our strategy by acquiring the FHS business. We believe that the FHS acquisition has allowed us to provide a more complete line of fluid management solutions for new vehicle platforms, diversified our customer base, and secured our position as the second largest global fluid handling systems supplier in the automotive industry.

In March of 2007, we acquired the El Jarudo business. The business is located in Juarez, Mexico and is a producer of automotive fuel rails.

In August of 2007, we acquired the MAPS business, including nine sealing systems operations in Germany, Italy, Poland, Belarus, and Belgium, and a joint venture interest in China. MAPS is a leader in Europe in the development and manufacture of complete automotive body sealing systems.

In December of 2007, we completed the acquisition of a 74% joint venture interest in MAP India, a leading manufacturer of automotive sealing products in India.

Expanding our footprint in Asia

While we have, through new facilities, acquisitions, and joint ventures, significantly expanded our presence in Asia, particularly China and India, we believe that significant opportunities for growth exist in this fast-growing market. We will continue to evaluate opportunities that enable us to establish or expand our design, technology and commercial support operations in that region and enhance our ability to serve current and future customers.

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Focusing on operational excellence and cost structure

We will continue to intensely focus on the efficiency of our manufacturing operations and on opportunities to reduce our cost structure. Although the automotive supply sector is highly competitive, we believe that we have been able to maintain strong operating margins due in part to our ability to constantly improve our manufacturing processes and to selectively relocate or close facilities. Our primary areas of focus are:

  Identifying and implementing Lean initiatives throughout the Company.    Our Lean initiatives are focused on optimizing manufacturing by eliminating waste, controlling cost, and enhancing productivity. Lean initiatives have been implemented at each of our manufacturing and design facilities.
  Evaluating opportunities to relocate operations to lower-cost countries.    We have successfully employed this strategy to date by relocating operations to the Czech Republic and Poland from higher-cost countries in Western Europe and from the United States and Canada to Mexico, China, and India. We plan to continue to emphasize our operations in lower-cost countries to capitalize on reduced labor and other costs.
  Consolidating facilities to reduce our cost structure.    Our restructuring efforts were primarily undertaken to streamline our global operations. We will continue to take a disciplined approach to evaluating restructuring opportunities that would improve our efficiency, profitability, and cost structure.
  Maintaining flexibility in all areas of our operations.    Our operational capital needs are generally lower compared to many in the automotive industry. Our manufacturing machinery is re-programmable and easily movable from job-to-job providing us with a high degree of flexibility in adapting to market changes and serving customers.

Further exploring non-transportation applications for products and technology

While the automotive industry will continue to be our core business, we have recently begun exploring new industries in which we can apply our expertise and manufacture new products utilizing our existing facilities and capabilities. As a leader in the development and manufacture of equipment using rubber, metals and extruded materials, we believe there may be opportunities in other sectors requiring the use of these materials.

Products:

We supply a diverse range of products on a global basis to a broad group of customers. For the year ended December 31, 2007, body & chassis and fluid handling products accounted for 55% and 45%, of net sales, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2006, body & chassis and fluid handling products accounted for 53% and 47% of net sales, respectively. Our top ten platforms by sales accounted for nearly 40% of net sales in 2007, with the remainder derived from a multitude of platforms, composed of a diversity of sport-utility, light truck, and various classes of sedans and other vehicles. For information related to our reportable segments, please refer to Note 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Our principal product lines are described below:

Body & Chassis Products

We are a leading global supplier of body & chassis products. Body & chassis products consist of body sealing systems and components that protect vehicle interiors from weather, dust, and noise intrusion and NVH control systems and components that control and isolate noise vibration in a vehicle to improve ride and handling. For the years ended December 31, 2007 and 2006, we generated approximately 55% and 53%, respectively of total revenue before corporate eliminations from the sale of body & chassis products.

We believe we are the largest provider of body sealing products in the world based on sales. We have an extensive product offering and believe we are known for exceptional quality and strong design and

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technical capabilities, including advanced skills in adhesives, mixing, and plastics technology. Our products are found on some of the world’s top-selling platforms, including the Ford F-Series, GMT900 (Silverado/Tahoe/Yukon), General Motors’ GMX 211 (Impala), and Ford B Car (Fiesta/Fusion).

Our body sealing products are comprised of manufactured EPDM (synthetic rubber) and TPE (thermoplastic elastomer) seals to provide environmental closure to the hood, trunk, and interior of vehicles. These products are highly engineered and are developed and manufactured with regard to aesthetic, performance, and durability requirements. The typical production process involves mixing of rubber/plastic compounds, extrusion (supported with metal and woven wire carriers or unsupported), cutting, notching, forming, injection molding, and assembly. Below is a description of the major body sealing products produced:


Product Category Description
Door Seals Sectional weatherstrip design that fits the door structure and body cabin to seal rain, dust, and noise from the occupants of vehicles
Hood Seals A primary seal offering protection against water penetration and reducing loud engine and road noise during high speed travel
Auxiliary Seals Seal encapsulated metal reinforcements for corner mirror mounting and sealing of assembly door to door and glass systems
Belt Line Seals Primary seal offering protection for moveable glass against water, dust, and noise entering the vehicle cabin
Lower Door Seals A primary body seal that offers protection against water penetration. Reduces loud road noise entering the cabin and maintains quietness during high speed driving
Glass Run Channel Assembly Enables the movable door glass and door to form one surface, improving glass movement and sealing
Quarter Window Trim Weatherstrip seals, integral pillar moldings, and decorative plastic or metal corner trims to seal fixed quarter side glass windows and glass encapsulation
Trunk Lid Seals A metal-compound type, triple extrusion product that creates a seal when applied onto the body flange
Roof Seal Convertible Roof Sealing: Weatherstrip sealing materials that combine compressibility with superior design for use on soft top weathersealing applications
  Sunroof Sealing and Trim: An original design and specification are required to create a narrow sealing space and minimize sliding resistance

As a result of our global presence, patented technologies and engineering capabilities, as well as our strong relationships with the global OEMs, we believe we are positioned for future growth and product expansion. We are currently developing additional system integration opportunities, particularly in window regulators, plastics, door components, and exterior trim.

We have expertise in nearly every aspect of automotive sealing technology, including adhesives, exterior coatings, corner molding, and rubber extrusion techniques, and have been a leader in the use of plastic applications, with a dedicated facility in Spartanburg, South Carolina that primarily produces plastic weathersealing components. This expertise has helped provide us with an entry with Japanese manufacturers, such as Nissan, in the use of TPE inner belt lines that their traditional suppliers have been unable to offer as competitively. We have been an early adopter of thermoplastic elastomers, which provide a lightweight, cost-effective alternative to rubber seals in some applications. We are a leader in the application of plastic supported glassrun systems through engineered stretched plastic and patent-protected daylight opening systems, which often provide cost savings, reduction of assembly time, and performance improvement. To further our capabilities, we exchange plastics technology with Nishikawa Rubber Company, one of our joint venture partners, and are currently cooperating on the development of a protected ‘‘blown sponge plastic’’ process as well as other innovative plastic applications with our

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customers. We are also currently collaborating on several customer-funded, advanced engineering projects with Ford and General Motors.

To grow our customer base, we intend to continue to strengthen our relationship with the Detroit 3 and are aggressively targeting other OEMs, particularly NAMs and European and Asian OEMs. Over the past two years we have secured business from Toyota, Nissan, Honda, and Audi. Further, our acquisition of the MAPS business diversified our customer base with the addition of customers such as Fiat, BMW, Daimler, Volkswagen Group and several India and Chinese OEMs. We intend to continue to develop new customer relationships by forming new strategic alliances and building on our existing joint ventures and long standing relationships. We own 50% of Nishikawa Standard Company (‘‘NISCO’’), a joint venture with Nishikawa Rubber Company; 89% of Cooper Saiyang Wuhu Automotive Co., Ltd., a joint venture with Saiyang Sealing in Wuhu, China; 47.5% of Shanghai SAIC-Metzeler Sealing Systems Co. Ltd., a joint venture with SAIC which also owns 47.5%; and 74 % of MAP India, a joint venture with Toyoda Gosei. We believe our strong Asian presence in rapidly expanding markets gives us the base and the abilities to engineer and deliver weathersealing products not enjoyed by our competition. These relationships and engineering and design capabilities have helped us to provide content on some of the world’s top-selling platforms.

We believe we are one of the two largest providers of noise, vibration and harshness control products in North America based on sales. We provide a comprehensive line of powertrain and suspension products and active noise and vibration cancellation systems. We are a leader in engineering, design, testing, and rubber-to-metal bonding technology, and provide superior integrated customer service and problem-solving capabilities.

Noise vibration control products include various engine and body mounts, dampers, isolators, and other equipment. Engine mounts secure and isolate vehicle powertrain noise, vibration, and harshness from the uni-body or frame. Body and cradle mounts enable isolation of the cabin from the vehicle frame, reducing noise, vibration, and harshness, and are manufactured with a variety of materials, such as natural rubber and butyl. Tuned dampers are designed to reduce specific vibration issues, such as for the steering wheel and column, exhaust system, and internal driveshaft.


Product Category Description
Body Cushions Enable isolation of the cabin from the vehicle frame reducing noise, vibration, and harshness
Engine Mounts Secure and isolate vehicle powertrain noise, vibration, and harshness from the uni-body or frame
Transmission Mounts Enable mounting of transmission to vehicle frame and reducing vibration and harshness from the powertrain
Torque Struts Control the fore and aft movement of transverse mounted engines within their compartment while isolating engine noise and vibration from the body
Hydromounts/ Hydrobushings An engine mount filled with fluid, a hydromount provides spring rate and damping performance that varies according to frequency and displacement of vibration. Conventional (non hydro) mounts provide fixed response. Hydromounts can provide a more comfortable ride in a vehicle whether idling or traveling. The new Truck Tuff hydromount is designed expressly for light truck and sport utility vehicles. Similar benefits are provided by hydrobushings.
Active Noise and Vibration Control We have developed new and unique patented techniques for attenuation of undesirable and potentially harmful low frequency noise and vibrations. This system, called ENVIsys, is well suited for a variety of transportation applications, such as heavy trucks, mining equipment, aircraft, and locomotives.

We believe we are one of the market leaders in developing breakthrough innovations in noise vibration control products and continue to make significant investment in our ability to deliver advanced

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technologies. We developed the popular Truck Tuff hydromounts for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. We believe that the Truck Tuff hydromount design was critical to our being awarded the contract to supply the engine mounting system on the new Ford F-Series, which Ford claims to be the smoothest, quietest truck on the market. We also recently developed ENVIsys, an advanced electronic system for the active control of noise and vibration for commercial applications. ENVIsys products have a wide variety of potential applications, including aircraft, rail, heavy truck, automotive, and mining equipment.

We believe these engineering and design capabilities, combined with intense focus on quality and customer service, have led to strong customer relationships and a growing customer base. In addition to strengthening our relationships with the Detroit 3, we target NAMs and Asian expansion opportunities. In North America, we continue to target NAMs and have recently been awarded new business with Toyota and Hyundai. In China, we are pursuing plans to expand our development facilities to couple with our manufacturing operations, and in Korea, we are pursuing expansion via joint venture partnerships.

Fluid Handling Products

We are a leading global supplier of subsystems and components that direct, control, measure, and transport fluids and vapors throughout a vehicle. We believe we are the second largest global provider of the types of fluid handling products we manufacture. We offer an extensive product portfolio and are positioned to serve OEMs around the world. We believe we have a reputation for superior technical support, product quality, rapid response capabilities, innovative solutions to design problems, and outstanding prototype capabilities. Our products are found on some of the world’s top-selling platforms, including the Ford F-Series, General Motors GMT800/900 (includes Yukon, Tahoe, Sierra, and Silverado), Dodge Ram, and Ford B Car (Fiesta/Fusion). For the years ended December 31, 2007 and 2006, we generated approximately 45% and 47%, respectively, of total revenue before corporate eliminations from the sale of fluid handling products.

Our products are principally found in four major vehicle systems: heating and cooling; fuel and brake; emissions; and power management, which includes power steering and power roof lines. These products, particularly fuel and brake components, are critical to the safe and reliable functioning of the vehicle. Our fluid handling systems include assemblies for various heating and cooling and fluid and vapor management systems and subsystems. Individual components include quick connects, hoses, couplings, coolers, valves, tubing, thermostats, and similar products. Below is a description of the major products that we produce within each category:


Product Category Description
Heating & Cooling Direct, control and transport oil, coolant, water, and other fluids throughout the vehicle
  Engine oil cooling subsystems with over molded connections Transmission oil cooling subsystems
  Engine oil cooler tube and hose assemblies Transmission oil cooler tube and hose
assemblies
  Engine oil cooling quick connects Engine oil level indicator tube assemblies
  Electro/mechanical water valves and pumps Integrated thermostats and plastic housings
  Coolant subsystems Bypass valves
  Radiator and heater hoses  
Fuel & Brake Direct, control, and transport fuel, brake fluid, and vapors throughout the vehicle
  Fuel supply and return lines Flexible brake lines
  Fuel quick connects Vacuum brake hoses
  Vapor control lines  

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Product Category Description
Emissions Direct, control, and transmit emission vapors and fluids throughout the vehicle
  Fully integrated exhaust gas recirculation subsystems Nylon PCV valves
Heated PCV valves
  EGR coolers and bypass coolers Exhaust gas recirculation valves
  Stainless steel exhaust gas recirculation tube assemblies DPF lines
Power Management Direct, control, and transmit power management fluids throughout the vehicle
  High pressure roof lines Power steering quick connects
  Torque position sensors Rack tubes
  Hydraulic clutch lines Noise reduction technology
  Power steering pressure and return lines  

To increase sales of fluid handling products, we intend to continue to capitalize on recent brake, fuel, and exhaust gas recirculation (‘‘EGR’’) product successes in Europe and North America; develop new complete module and assembly solutions, aimed at building a reputation as a ‘‘tube and hose integrator;’’ and create product improvements that provide greater functionality at a lower cost to the customer. We plan to continue to invest in research and development to support these efforts and focus on advanced materials, innovative processes and product design and development driven by Design for Six Sigma. Advanced EGR valves, tubes, and cooler products have become critical components in regions where environmental regulations are stringent, such as in Europe, and for heavy truck platforms in the United States. For products such as rubber hose, steel tubing, and nylon tubing, innovations in advanced materials have led to the development of superior components. We also have in-house tube manufacturing and coating capabilities in North America, Europe and Asia, allowing us to maintain a competitive edge over smaller fabricators.

We believe these engineering and design capabilities, combined with intense focus on quality and customer service, have led to strong customer relationships and a growing customer base. We are targeting an increasing market share with NAMs and European and Asian OEMs, especially in China. In 2006, we finalized two joint venture agreements with Jingda, one of the largest tube manufacturers in China. In addition to pursuing business directly from NAMs, we partner with Tier I suppliers, such as Denso and Calsonic, to help build relationships. We have also experienced success targeting high-volume programs where a substantial degree of complexity, engineering interaction, and design support are required, and which also serve to strengthen customer relationships.

Supplies and Raw Materials

The principal raw materials for our business include fabricated metal-based components, synthetic rubber, carbon black, and natural rubber. We manage the procurement of our raw materials to assure supply and to obtain favorable pricing. For natural rubber, procurement is managed by both buying forward of production requirements and buying in the spot market. For other materials, procurement arrangements may contain formula-based pricing linked to commodity indices. These arrangements provide quantities needed to satisfy normal manufacturing demands. We believe we have adequate sources for the supply of raw materials and components for our products with suppliers located around the world. We often use offshore suppliers for machined components, metal stampings, castings, and labor-intensive, economically freighted products.

Patents and Trademarks

We believe one of our competitive advantages is our track record of technological innovation. We hold nearly 800 patents in key product technologies, such as Daylight Opening Modules, Engineered Stretched Plastics, Low Fuel Permeation Nylon Tubing, Quick Connect Fluid Couplings, as well as core process methods, such as molding, joining, and coating. We consider these patents to be of value and seek to

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protect our rights throughout the world against infringement. While in the aggregate these patents are important to our business, we do not believe that the loss or termination of any one of them would materially affect our company. We continue to seek patent protection for our new products. Our patents will continue to be amortized over the next five to twelve years.

We also have license and technology sharing agreements with Nishikawa Rubber Company for sales, marketing, and engineering services on certain body sealing products we sell. Under those agreements, each party pays for services provided by the other and royalties on certain products for which the other party provides design or development services.

We own or have licensed several trademarks that are registered in many countries, enabling us to protect and market our products worldwide. During 2006, we purchased the right to use our current name from Cooper Tire.

Seasonality

Sales to automotive customers are lowest during the months prior to model changeovers and during assembly plant shutdowns. These typically result in lower sales volumes during July, August, and December. During these periods of lower sales volumes, profit performance is lower, but working capital improves due to continuing collection of accounts receivable.

Competition

We believe that the principal competitive factors in our industry are price, quality, service, performance, design and engineering capabilities, innovation, and timely delivery. We believe that our capabilities in these core competencies are integral to our position as a market leader in each of our product lines. In body & chassis products we compete with Toyoda Gosei; Delphi; Trelleborg; Tokai; Vibracoustic; Paulstra and Hutchinson, among others. In fluid handling products, we compete with TI Automotive, Mark IV Automotive, Martinrea, and numerous manufacturers of hoses.

Industry Overview

The automotive industry is one of the world’s largest and most competitive. The industry is mature in North America and Europe, with vehicle sales primarily driven by general economic conditions. In recent years, significant consolidation among OEMs, combined with globalization, has led to major shifts in market share positions and greater pressure on profit margins.

These developments have also led to a more competitive environment for automotive suppliers. The automotive supply industry is generally characterized by high barriers to entry, significant start-up costs, and long-standing customer relationships. The primary criteria by which OEMs judge automotive suppliers include price, quality, service, performance, design and engineering capabilities, innovation, and timely delivery.

The Industry is experiencing significant growth of vehicle production in Asia, especially in China and India as these economies expand.

Customers

We are a leading supplier to the Detroit 3 in each of our product categories and are increasing our presence with NAMs and European and Asian OEMs. During the year ended December 31, 2007, approximately 27%, 20%, and 8% of our sales were to Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler, respectively, as compared to 29%, 25%, and 10% for the year ended December 31, 2006, respectively. Chrysler sales for the year ended December 31, 2006 include sales to Daimler. Sales to Ford include sales to OEMs owned by Ford, such as Volvo, Jaguar, and Land Rover. Our other major customers include Renault/Nissan, PSA Peugeot Citroën, and Volkswagen. We also sell products to Visteon/ACH, Toyota, Porsche, and through NISCO, Honda. Our business with any given customer is typically split among several contracts for different parts on a number of platforms. Our recent MAPS acquisitions have added significant volume with Fiat, BMW, Daimler, Volkswagen/Aud i and various Indian and Chinese OEMs.

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Research and Development

We operate nine design, engineering, and administration facilities throughout the world and employ 665 research and development personnel, some of whom reside at our customers’ facilities. We utilize Design for Six Sigma and other methodologies that emphasize manufacturability and quality. We are aggressively expanding our capabilities with new systems for Computer Aided Design, Computer Aided Engineering, vehicle testing, and rapid prototyping. We spend significantly each year to maintain and enhance our technical centers, enabling us to quickly and effectively respond to customer demands. We spent $65.6 million, $74.8 million, and $77.2 million in 2005, 2006, and 2007, respectively, on research and development.

Joint Ventures and Strategic Alliances

Joint ventures represent an important part of our business, both operationally and strategically. We have used joint ventures to enter into new geographic markets such as China, Korea, and India, to acquire new customers, and to develop new technologies. In entering new geographic markets, teaming with a local partner can reduce capital investment by leveraging pre-existing infrastructure. In addition, local partners in these markets can provide knowledge and insight into local practices and access to local suppliers of raw materials and components. In North America, joint ventures have proven valuable in establishing new relationships with NAMs. For example, we were awarded significant new business with Honda through our NISCO joint venture. In 2005, we acquired a 20% equity interest in and expanded our technical alliance with Guyoung, a Korean supplier of metal stampings, which recently built a manufacturing facility in Alabama that services Hyundai. In 2006, we finalized two joint venture agreements with Jingda, one of the largest tube manufacturers in China to expand our presence in that country. As part of the acquisition of the MAPS business in 2007, we acquired a 47.5% equity interest in Shanghai SAIC-Metzeler Sealing Systems Co. Ltd., a joint venture with SAIC, which also owns a 47.5% equity interest, and Shanghai Qinpu Zhaotun Collective Asset Management Company, which owns the remaining 5% equity interest. This joint venture business is the leading manufacturer of automotive sealing products in China. Also in 2007, we acquired a 74% equity interest in MAP India, a joint venture with Toyoda Gosei Co., Ltd., which owns the remaining 26% equity interest. MAP India is a leading manufacturer of automotive sealing products in India.

Geographic Information

In 2007, we generated approximately 61% of net sales in North America, 31% in Europe, 5% in South America, and 3% in Asia/Pacific. Approximately 15% of our revenues were generated from our Canadian operations.

In 2006, we generated approximately 67% of net sales in North America, 24% in Europe, 4% in South America, and 5% in Asia/Pacific. Approximately 18% of our revenues were generated from our Canadian operations.

Employees

We maintain good relations with both our union and non-union employees and, in the past ten years, have not experienced any major work stoppages. We will be negotiating some of our domestic and international union agreements which are due to expire in the next twelve months. As of December 31, 2007, approximately 44% of our employees were represented by unions, and approximately 16% of our employees were union represented employees located in the United States.

As of December 31, 2007, we had 21,123 full-time and temporary employees.

Environmental

We are subject to a broad range of federal, state, and local environmental and occupational safety and health laws and regulations in the United States and other countries, including those governing emissions to air; discharges to water; noise, and odor emissions; the generation, handling, storage, transportation,

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treatment, and disposal of waste materials; the cleanup of contaminated properties; and human health and safety. For example, as an owner and operator of real property or a generator of hazardous substances, we may be subject to environmental cleanup liability, regardless of fault, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act or analogous laws, as well as to claims for harm to health or property or for natural resource damages arising out of contamination or exposure to hazardous substances. Several of our properties have been the subject of remediation activities to address historic contamination. In general, we believe we are in substantial compliance with the requirements under such laws and regulations and our continued compliance is not expected to have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or the results of our operations. We expect that additional requirements with respect to environmental matters will be imposed in the future. Our expense and cap ital expenditures for environmental matters at our facilities have not been material in the past, nor are expected to be in the future.

Forward-Looking Statements

This Form 10-K includes ‘‘forward-looking statements’’ within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. We make forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and may make such statements in future filings with the SEC. We may also make forward-looking statements in our press releases or other public or stockholder communications. These forward-looking statements include statements concerning our plans, objectives, goals, strategies, future events, future revenue or performance, capital expenditures, financing needs, plans or intentions relating to acquisitions, business trends, and other information that is not historical information and, in particular, appear under ‘‘Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations’’, ‘‘Risk Factors’’ and ‘‘Business.’’ When used in this report, the words ‘‘estimates,’’ ‘‘expects,’’ ‘‘anticipates,’’ ‘‘projects,’’ ‘‘plans,’’ ‘‘intends,’’ ‘‘believes,’’ ‘‘forecasts,’’ or future or conditional verbs, such as ‘‘will,’’ ‘‘should,’’ ‘‘could,’’ or ‘‘may,’’ and variations of such words or similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, management’s examination of historical operating trends and data are based upon our current expectations and various assumptions. Our expectations, beliefs, and projections are expressed in good faith and we believe there is a reasonable basis for them. However, we cannot assure you that these expectations, beliefs, and projections will be achieved.

There are a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-K. Important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements we make in this report are set forth in this Form 10-K, including under Item 1A. ‘‘Risk Factors’’.

As stated elsewhere in this Form 10-K, such risks, uncertainties, and other important factors include, among others: our substantial leverage; limitations on flexibility in operating our business contained in our debt agreements; our dependence on the automotive industry; availability and cost of raw materials; our dependence on certain major customers; competition in our industry; our conducting operations outside the United States; the uncertainty of our ability to achieve expected Lean savings; our exposure to product liability and warranty claims; labor conditions; our vulnerability to rising interest rates; our ability to meet our customers’ needs for new and improved products in a timely manner; our ability to attract and retain key personnel; the possibility that our owners’ interests will conflict those of investors; our status as a stand-alone company; our legal rights to our intellectual property portfolio; our underfunded pension plans; en vironmental and other regulation; and the possibility that our acquisition strategy will not be successful. There may be other factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements.

We undertake no obligation to update or revise forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances that arise after the date made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

We do not undertake, and we specifically disclaim, any obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events or circumstances after the date of such statements.

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Item 1A.    Risk Factors

You should carefully consider the following risk factors and all other information contained in this Form 10-K. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently deem immaterial, also may become important factors that affect us.

Risks Relating to Our Leverage

Our substantial leverage could harm our business by limiting our available cash and our access to additional capital and, to the extent of our variable rate indebtedness, exposes us to interest rate risk.

We are highly leveraged. As of December 31, 2007, our total consolidated indebtedness was $1,140.2 million. Our leverage increased upon the closing of our acquisition of MAPS, because we financed part of the acquisition with an incremental term loan under the Second Amendment to the Credit Agreement.

Our high degree of leverage could have important consequences, including:

  It may limit our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, product development, debt service requirements, acquisitions, and general corporate or other purposes on favorable terms or at all;
  A substantial portion of our cash flows from operations must be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness and thus will not be available for other purposes, including our operations, capital expenditures, and future business opportunities;
  The debt service requirements of our other indebtedness could make it more difficult for us to make payments on the Senior Notes and Senior Subordinated Notes issued by Cooper-Standard Automotive Inc. in connection with the 2004 Acquisition (the ‘‘Notes’’);
  It may place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to those of our competitors that are less highly leveraged;
  It may restrict our ability to make strategic acquisitions or cause us to make non-strategic divestitures; and
  We may be more vulnerable than a less highly-leveraged company to a downturn in general economic conditions or in our business, or we may be unable to carry out the desired amount of capital spending to support our growth.

Our cash paid for interest for the year ended December 31, 2007 was $87.6 million, which excludes the amortization of $4.9 million of debt issuance costs. At December 31, 2007, we had $554.3 million of debt with floating interest rates, including $270.3 million managed by the use of interest rate swap contracts to convert the variable rate characteristic to fixed rate. If interest rates increase, assuming no principal repayments or use of financial derivatives, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness would increase even though the amount borrowed remained the same, and our net income and cash available for servicing our indebtedness, including the Notes, would decrease. After considering the effects of certain interest rate swap contracts we entered into during 2007, a 1% increase in the average interest rate of our variable rate indebtedness would increase future interest expense by approximately $2 .8 million per year.

Our debt agreements contain restrictions that limit our flexibility in operating our business.

The senior credit agreement and the indentures under which the Notes were issued contain a number of significant covenants that, among other things, restrict our ability to:

  incur additional indebtedness or issue redeemable preferred stock;
  pay dividends and repurchase our capital stock;
  issue stock of subsidiaries;
  make certain investments;

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  enter into agreements that restrict dividends from subsidiaries;
  transfer or sell assets;
  enter into transactions with our affiliates;
  incur liens;
  engage in mergers, amalgamations, or consolidations; and
  make capital expenditures.

In addition, under the senior credit agreement, we are required to satisfy specified financial ratios and tests. Our ability to comply with those provisions may be affected by events beyond our control, and may limit our ability to comply with those required ratios and tests.

Risks Relating to Our Business

We are highly dependent on the automotive industry.

Our customers are automobile manufacturers and their suppliers whose production volumes are dependent upon general economic conditions and the level of consumer spending. The volume of global vehicle production has fluctuated considerably from year to year, and such fluctuations may give rise to fluctuations in the demand for our products. Demand for new vehicles fluctuates in response to overall economic conditions and is particularly sensitive to changes in interest rates, consumer confidence, and fuel costs. In addition, to the extent our production volumes have been positively impacted by OEM new vehicle sales incentives, these sales incentives may not be sustained or may cease to favorably impact our sales. If any of these or other factors leads to a decline in new vehicle production, our results of operations could be materially adversely affected. Further, to the extent that the financial condition of any of our largest customers deteriorates or results i n bankruptcy, our financial position and operating results could be materially adversely affected.

Increasing competitiveness in the automotive industry has also led OEMs to pressure us to lower prices we charge for our products. Price reductions have impacted our sales and profit margins. If we are not able to offset price reductions through improved operating efficiencies and reduced expenditures, price reductions may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

Increasing costs for or reduced availability of manufactured components and raw materials may adversely affect our profitability.

The principal raw materials we purchase include fabricated metal-based components, synthetic rubber, carbon black, and natural rubber. Raw materials comprise the largest component of our costs, representing approximately 49% of our total costs during the year ended December 31, 2007. A significant increase in the price of these items could materially increase our operating costs and materially and adversely affect our profit margins because it is generally difficult to pass through these increased costs to our customers. For example, we have experienced significant price increases in our raw steel and steel-related component purchases as a result of increased global demand. Our largest single raw material purchase is steel, and it comprised approximately 11% of our total material costs during the year ended December 31, 2007.

Because we purchase various types of raw materials and manufactured components, we may be materially and adversely affected by the failure of our suppliers of those materials to perform as expected. This non-performance may consist of delivery delays or failures caused by production issues or delivery of non-conforming products. The risk of non-performance may also result from the insolvency or bankruptcy of one or more of our suppliers. Our suppliers’ ability to supply products to us is also subject to a number of risks, including availability of raw materials, such as steel and natural rubber, destruction of their facilities, or work stoppages. In addition, our failure to promptly pay, or order sufficient quantities of inventory from our suppliers may increase the cost of products we purchase or may lead to suppliers refusing to sell products to us at all. Our efforts to protect against and to minimize these risks may not always be effective.

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Our business would be materially and adversely affected if we lost a significant portion of business from any of our largest customers.

For the year ended December 31, 2007, approximately 27%, 20%, and 8% of our sales were to Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler, respectively. To compete effectively, we must continue to satisfy these and other customers’ pricing, service, technology, and increasingly stringent quality and reliability requirements. Additionally, our revenues may be affected by decreases in these three manufacturers’ businesses or market shares. The market shares of these customers have declined in recent years and may continue to decline in the future. We cannot provide any assurance that we will be able to maintain or increase our sales to these or any other customers. The loss of, or significant reduction in purchases by, one of these major customers or the loss of all of the contracts relating to certain major platforms of one of these customers could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

We could be adversely affected if we are unable to continue to compete successfully in the highly competitive automotive parts industry.

The automotive parts industry is highly competitive. We face numerous competitors in each of the product lines we serve. In general, there are three or more significant competitors for most of the products offered by our company and numerous smaller competitors. We also face increased competition for certain of our products from suppliers producing in lower-cost countries such as Korea and China, especially for certain lower-technology noise, vibration and harshness control products that have physical characteristics that make long-distance shipping more feasible and economical. We may not be able to continue to compete favorably and increased competition in our markets may have a material adverse effect on our business.

We are subject to other risks associated with our non-U.S. operations.

We have significant manufacturing operations outside the United States, including joint ventures and other alliances. Our operations are located in 18 countries and we export to several other countries. In 2007, approximately 66% of our net sales originated outside the United States. Risks are inherent in international operations, including:

  exchange controls and currency restrictions;
  currency fluctuations and devaluations;
  changes in local economic conditions;
  changes in laws and regulations, including the imposition of embargos;
  exposure to possible expropriation or other government actions; and
  unsettled political conditions and possible terrorist attacks against American interests.

These and other factors may have a material adverse effect on our international operations or on our business, results of operations, and financial condition. For example, we are faced with potential difficulties in staffing and managing local operations and we have to design local solutions to manage credit risks of local customers and distributors. Also, the cost and complexity of streamlining operations in certain European countries is greater than would be the case in the United States, due primarily to labor laws in those countries that can make reducing employment levels more time-consuming and expensive than in the United States. Our flexibility in our foreign operations can also be somewhat limited by agreements we have entered into with our foreign joint venture partners.

Our overall success as a global business depends, in part, upon our ability to succeed in differing economic, social, and political conditions. We may not continue to succeed in developing and implementing policies and strategies that are effective in each location where we do business, and failure to do so could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Our sales outside the United States expose us to currency risks. During times of a strengthening U.S. dollar, at a constant level of business, our reported international sales and earnings will be reduced because the local currency will translate into fewer U.S. dollars. In addition to currency translation risks, we incur a currency transaction risk whenever one of our operating subsidiaries enters into either a purchase or a sales transaction using a different currency from the currency in which it receives revenues.

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Given the volatility of exchange rates, we may not be able to manage our currency transaction and/or translation risks effectively, or volatility in currency exchange rates may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

Our lean manufacturing and other cost savings plans may not be effective.

Our operations strategy includes cutting costs by reducing product errors, inventory levels, operator motion, overproduction, and waiting while fostering the increased flow of material, information, and communication. The cost savings that we anticipate from these initiatives may not be achieved on schedule or at the level anticipated by management. If we are unable to realize these anticipated savings, our operating results and financial condition may be adversely affected. Moreover, the implementation of cost saving plans and facilities integration may disrupt our operations and performance.

We may incur material losses and costs as a result of product liability and warranty and recall claims that may be brought against us.

We may be exposed to product liability and warranty claims in the event that our products actually or allegedly fail to perform as expected or the use of our products results, or is alleged to result, in bodily injury and/or property damage. Accordingly, we could experience material warranty or product liability losses in the future and incur significant costs to defend these claims.

In addition, if any of our products are, or are alleged to be, defective, we may be required to participate in a recall of that product if the defect or the alleged defect relates to automotive safety. Our costs associated with providing product warranties could be material. Product liability, warranty, and recall costs may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Work stoppages or similar difficulties could disrupt our operations.

As of December 31, 2007, approximately 44% of our employees were represented by unions, and approximately 16% of our employees were union represented employees located in the United States. It is possible that our workforce will become more unionized in the future. A work stoppage at one or more of our plants may have a material adverse effect on our business. Collective bargaining agreements at three of our North American facilities are due to expire in 2008, and we will be engaged in negotiations with unions at these facilities with respect to new contracts. Unionization activities could also increase our costs, which could have an adverse effect on our profitability.

We may be subject to work stoppages and may be, affected by other labor disputes. Additionally, a work stoppage at one or more of our customers or our customers’ suppliers could adversely affect our operations if an alternative source of supply were not readily available. Stoppages by employees of our customers also could result in reduced demand for our products and have material adverse effect on our business.

Our success depends in part on our development of improved products, and our efforts may fail to meet the needs of customers on a timely or cost-effective basis.

Our continued success depends on our ability to maintain advanced technological capabilities, machinery, and knowledge necessary to adapt to changing market demands as well as to develop and commercialize innovative products. We may not be able to develop new products as successfully as in the past or be able to keep pace with technological developments by our competitors and the industry generally. In addition, we may develop specific technologies and capabilities in anticipation of customers’ demands for new innovations and technologies. If such demand does not materialize, we may be unable to recover the costs incurred in such programs. If we are unable to recover these costs or if any such programs do not progress as expected, our business, financial condition, or results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Our ability to operate our company effectively could be impaired if we fail to attract and retain key personnel.

Our ability to operate our business and implement our strategies depends, in part, on the efforts of our executive officers and other key employees. In addition, our future success will depend on, among other

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factors, our ability to attract and retain other qualified personnel, particularly research and development engineers and technical sales professionals. The loss of the services of any of our key employees or the failure to attract or retain other qualified personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business or business prospects.

Our Sponsors may have conflicts of interest with us in the future.

Our Sponsors beneficially own approximately 98.5% of the outstanding shares of our common stock. Additionally, we have entered into a stockholders’ agreement with the Sponsors that grants them certain preemptive rights to purchase additional equity and rights to designate members of our Board of Directors. As a result, our Sponsors have control over our decisions to enter into any corporate transaction and have the ability to prevent any transaction that requires the approval of stockholders regardless of whether or not other stockholders or noteholders believe that any such transactions are in their own best interests.

Additionally, our Sponsors are in the business of making investments in companies and may from time to time acquire and hold interests in businesses that compete directly or indirectly with us. Our Sponsors may also pursue acquisition opportunities that may be complementary to our business, and as a result, those acquisition opportunities may not be available to us. So long as our Sponsors continue to own a significant amount of the outstanding shares of our common stock, even if such amount is less than 50%, they will continue to be able to strongly influence or effectively control our decisions.

Our intellectual property portfolio is subject to legal challenges.

We have developed and actively pursue developing proprietary technology in the automotive industry and rely on intellectual property laws and a number of patents in many jurisdictions to protect such technology. However, we may be unable to prevent third parties from using our intellectual property without authorization. If we had to litigate to protect these rights, any proceedings could be costly, and we may not prevail. We also face increasing exposure to the claims of others for infringement of intellectual property rights. We may have material intellectual property claims asserted against us in the future and could incur significant costs or losses related to such claims.

Our pension plans are currently underfunded and we may have to make cash payments to the plans, reducing the cash available for our business.

We sponsor various pension plans worldwide that are underfunded and will require cash payments. Additionally, if the performance of the assets in our pension plans does not meet our expectations, or if other actuarial assumptions are modified, our required contributions may be higher than we expect. If our cash flow from operations is insufficient to fund our worldwide pension liability, we may be forced to reduce or delay capital expenditures, seek additional capital, or seek to restructure or refinance our indebtedness.

As of December 31, 2007, our $256.0 million projected benefit obligation (‘‘PBO’’) for U.S. pension benefit obligations exceeded the fair value of the relevant plans’ assets, which totaled $225.0 million, by $31.0 million. Additionally, the international employees’ plans’ PBO exceeded plan assets by approximately $80.4 million at December 31, 2007. The PBO for other postretirement benefits (‘‘OPEB’’) was $80.9 million at December 31, 2007. Our estimated funding requirement for pensions and OPEB during 2008 is approximately $37.0 million. Net periodic pension costs for U.S. and international plans, including pension benefits and OPEB, were $24.8 million and $19.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2006 and 2007, respectively. See ‘‘Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data’’ (espe cially Notes 9 and 10).

We are subject to a broad range of environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

We are subject to a broad range of federal, state, and local environmental and occupational safety and health laws and regulations in the United States and other countries, including those governing emissions to air, discharges to water, noise and odor emissions; the generation, handling, storage, transportation,

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treatment, and disposal of waste materials; the cleanup of contaminated properties; and human health and safety. We may incur substantial costs associated with hazardous substance contamination or exposure, including cleanup costs, fines, and civil or criminal sanctions, third party property or natural resource damage, or personal injury claims, or costs to upgrade or replace existing equipment, as a result of violations of or liabilities under environmental laws or non-compliance with environmental permits required at our locations. In addition, many of our current and former facilities are located on properties with long histories of industrial or commercial operations and some of these properties have been subject to certain environmental investigations and remediation activities. Because some environmental laws (such as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) can impose liability for the entire cost of cleanup upon any of the current or former owners or operators, retroa ctively and regardless of fault, we could become liable for investigating or remediating contamination at these or other properties (including offsite locations). We may not always be in complete compliance with all applicable requirements of environmental law or regulation, and we may incur material costs or liabilities in connection with such requirements. In addition, new environmental requirements or changes to existing requirements, or in their enforcement, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition. We have made and will continue to make expenditures to comply with environmental requirements. While our costs to defend and settle claims arising under environmental laws in the past have not been material, such costs may be material in the future. For more information about our environmental compliance and potential environmental liabilities, see ‘‘Item 1. Business – Environmental.’’

If our acquisition strategy is not successful, we may not achieve our growth and profit objectives.

We may selectively pursue complementary acquisitions in the future as part of our growth strategy. While we will evaluate business opportunities on a regular basis, we may not be successful in identifying any attractive acquisitions. We may not have, or be able to raise on acceptable terms, sufficient financial resources to make acquisitions. In addition, any acquisitions we make will be subject to all of the risks inherent in an acquisition strategy, including integrating financial and operational reporting systems; establishing satisfactory budgetary and other financial controls; funding increased capital needs and overhead expenses; obtaining management personnel required for expanded operations; and funding cash flow shortages that may occur if anticipated sales and revenues are not realized or are delayed, whether by general economic or market conditions or unforeseen internal difficulties.

Our ability to make scheduled payments or to refinance our debt obligations depends on our financial and operating performance, which is subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business, and other factors beyond our control. We may not be able to maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness. See ‘‘Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources.’’

If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay capital expenditures, seek additional capital, or seek to restructure or refinance our indebtedness. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. In the absence of such operating results and resources, we could face substantial liquidity problems and might be required to sell material assets or operations to attempt to meet our debt service and other obligations. The Senior Credit Facilities and the indentures under which the Senior Notes and the Senior Subordinated Notes were issued restrict our ability to use the proceeds from asset sales. We may not be able to consummate those asset sales to raise capital or sell assets at prices that we believe are fair and proceeds that we do receive may not be adequate to meet any debt service obligations then due.

Despite our current leverage, we may still be able to incur substantially more debt. This could further exacerbate the risks that we and our subsidiaries face.

We and our subsidiaries may be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future. Our revolving credit facilities provide commitments of up to $125.0 million, of which $101.0 million was available for future borrowings as of December 31, 2007.

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Available Information

The Company makes available free of charge on or through its Internet website its annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as soon as reasonably practicable after it electronically files such material with, or furnishes it to, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (‘‘SEC’’).

Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments.

Not applicable.

Item 2.    Properties

As of December 31, 2007, our operations were conducted through 78 facilities in 18 countries, of which 69 are manufacturing facilities and nine are used for multiple purposes. Our corporate headquarters is located in Novi, Michigan. Our manufacturing facilities are located in North America, Europe, Asia, South America, and Australia. We believe that substantially all of our properties are in good condition and that we have sufficient capacity to meet our current and projected manufacturing and design needs. The following table summarizes our property holdings:


Region Division Total Facilities Owned Facilities
North America Body & Chassis 12 11
  Fluid 16 12
  Other 5 1
Asia Asia Pacific* 17 6
  Other 1
Europe Body & Chassis 15 10
  Fluid 7 6
  Other 2 1
South America Body & Chassis 1 1
  Fluid 1
Australia Fluid 1 1
* Includes Asia Pacific properties that are included in Body & Chassis and Fluid for segment reporting.

Item 3.    Legal Proceedings

We are involved in various legal actions and claims arising in the ordinary course of business, including without limitation intellectual property matters, product related claims, tax claims, and employment matters. Although the outcome of legal matters cannot be predicted with certainty, we do not believe that any matters with which we are currently involved, either individually or in the aggregate, will have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, financial condition, or results of operations. See ‘‘Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Date’’ (especially Note 14).

Item 4.    Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders

By Written Consent of the Stockholders in Lieu of Meeting dated as of November 1, 2007, the stockholders of the Company unanimously approved and adopted a Certificate of Amendment to the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Company increasing the total number of shares of the common stock of the Company which the Company has the authority to issue from 3,500,000 shares to 4,000,000. Pursuant to the same written consent, the stockholders of the Company unanimously approved amendments to the Company’s 2004 Stock Incentive Plan which increased the number of shares of the common stock of the Company reserved for issuance under the plan by 200,000 shares, and included amendments to comply with Section 409A of the Internal Revenue Code and other administrative amendments.

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PART II

Item 5  Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Equity interests in Cooper-Standard Holdings Inc. consist of shares of its common stock, $0.01 par value per share. Cooper-Standard Holdings Inc. has been a privately held entity since its formation and no trading market exists for its common stock. During 2007, the Company increased it authorized shares from 3,500,000 to 4,000,000. At December 31, 2007, 3,483,600 shares of its common stock were issued and outstanding. As of that date, there were 22 holders of record of Cooper-Standard Holdings Inc. common stock.

Cooper-Standard Holdings Inc. has never paid or declared a dividend. The declaration of any prospective dividends is at the discretion of the Board of Directors and would be dependent upon sufficient earnings, capital requirements, financial position, general economic conditions, state law requirements, and other relevant factors. Additionally, our agreement with our lenders prohibits payment of dividends, except stock dividends, without the lenders’ prior consent.

The following table presents all stock-based compensation plans of the Company at December 31, 2007:


  (a) (b) (c)
Compensation Plan Number of Securities
to be Issued Upon
Exercise of Outstanding
Options and Warrants
Weighted-Average
Exercise Price of
Options and Warrants
Number of securities
remaining available for
future issuance under
equity compensation plans
(excluding securities
reflected in column (a)
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders 212,615 $ 100 211,000
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders
Total 212,615 $ 100 211,000

Item 6.    Selected Financial Data

The selected financial data referred to as the Successor data as of and for the years ended December 31, 2007, 2006 and 2005, and as of December 31, 2004 and for the period from December 24, 2004 to December 31, 2004, have been derived from the consolidated audited financial statements of Cooper-Standard Holdings Inc. and its subsidiaries which have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accountants.

The selected financial data referred to as the Predecessor financial data as of December 31, 2003 and for the period from January 1, 2004 to December 23, 2004 and the year ended December 31, 2003 have been derived from the combined audited financial statements of the automotive segment of Cooper Tire, which have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accountants. The information reflects our business as it historically operated within Cooper Tire, and includes certain assets and liabilities that we did not acquire or assume as part of the 2004 Acquisition. Also, on December 23, 2004, Cooper-Standard Holdings Inc., which prior to the 2004 Acquisition never had any independent operations, purchased the automotive business represented in the historical Predecessor financial statements. As a result of applying the required purchase accounting rules to the 2004 Acquisition and accounting for the assets and liabilities that were not assumed in the 2004 Acquisition, our financial statements for the period following the acquisition were significantly affected. The application of purchase accounting rules required us to revalue our assets and liabilities, which resulted in different accounting bases being applied in different periods. As a result, historical combined financial data included in this Form 10-K in Predecessor statements may not reflect what our actual financial position, results of operations, and cash flows would have been had we operated as a separate, stand-alone company as of and for those periods presented.

The audited consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2005, 2006 and 2007 are included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. See ‘‘Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.’’

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You should read the following data in conjunction with ‘‘Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations’’ and the consolidated financial statements of Cooper-Standard Holdings Inc. included elsewhere in this Form 10-K (Information presented in millions).


  Predecessor Successor
  2003 January 1,
2004 to
December 23,
2004
December 24,
2004 to
December 31,
2004
Year Ended
December 31,
2005
Year Ended
December 31,
2006
Year Ended
December 31,
2007
Statement of operations            
Net sales $ 1,662.2 $ 1,858.9 $ 4.7 $ 1,827.4 $ 2,164.3 $ 2,511.2
Cost of products sold 1,389.2 1,539.1 4.7 1,550.2 1,832.1 2,114.1
Gross profit 273.0 319.8 277.2 332.2 397.1
Selling, administration, & engineering expenses 162.7 177.5 5.2 169.7 199.8 222.1
Amortization of intangibles 0.8 0.7 28.2 31.0 31.9
Impairment charges 13.2 146.4
Restructuring 12.8 21.2 3.0 23.9 26.4
Operating profit 96.7 120.4 (5.2 )  76.3 64.3 (29.7 ) 
Interest expense, net of interest income (4.9 )  (1.8 )  (5.7 )  (66.6 )  (87.2 )  (89.5 ) 
Equity earnings 0.9 1.0 2.8 0.2 2.2
Other income (expense) (1.0 )  (2.1 )  4.6 (1.3 )  7.0 (1.1 ) 
Income (loss) before income taxes 91.7 117.5 (6.3 )  11.2 (15.7 )  (118.1 ) 
Provision for income taxes (benefit) 34.3 34.2 (1.8 )  2.4 (7.3 )  32.9
Net income (loss) $ 57.4 $ 83.3 $ (4.5 )  $ 8.8 $ (8.4 )  $ (151.0 ) 
Statement of cash flows data            
Net cash provided (used) by:            
Operating activities $ 117.7 $ 132.2 $ 29.3 $ 113.0 $ 135.9 $ 185.4
Investment activities (53.3 )  (53.5 )  (1,132.9 )  (133.0 )  (281.8 )  (260.0 ) 
Financing activities (54.2 )  (109.6 )  1,189.3 (7.2 )  147.6 55.0
Other financial data:            
Capital expenditures $ 58.7 $ 62.7 $ 0.3 $ 54.5 $ 82.9 $ 107.3
Balance Sheet data            
Cash and cash equivalents $ 102.6   $ 83.7 $ 62.2 $ 56.3 $ 40.9
Net working capital(1) 165.4   123.1 162.9 212.1 254.4
Total assets 1,456.7   1,812.3 1,734.2 1,911.4 2,162.3
Total non-current liabilities 90.1   1,165.0 1,117.9 1,259.4 1,364.7
Total debt(2) 13.7   912.7 902.5 1,055.5 1,140.2
Net parent investment/ Stockholders’ equity 1,124.4   318.2 312.2 320.7 268.6
(1) Net working capital is defined as current assets (excluding cash and cash equivalents) less current liabilities (excluding debt payable within one year).
(2) Includes term loans, bonds, $2.3 million in capital leases, and $53.0 million of other third-party debt at December 31, 2007.

Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. The following discussion of the financial condition and results of operations of the Company contains certain forward-looking statements relating to anticipated future financial conditions and operating results of the Company and its current business plans. In the future, the financial condition and operating results of the Company could differ

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materially from those discussed herein and its current business plans could be altered in response to market conditions and other factors beyond the Company’s control. Important factors that could cause or contribute to such differences or changes include those discussed elsewhere in this report. See ‘‘Item 1. Business – Forward Looking Statements’’ and ‘‘Item 1A. Risk Factors.’’

Basis of Presentation

Prior to the 2004 Acquisition, the automotive segment of Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (referred to as the ‘‘Predecessor’’) did not operate as a stand-alone business, but as a reportable business segment of Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (‘‘Cooper Tire’’). The financial information of the Predecessor represents the combined results of operations and cash flows of the automotive business segment of Cooper Tire and reflects the historical basis of accounting without any application of purchase accounting for the 2004 Acquisition. The financial information of the Company following the 2004 Acquisition (referred to as the ‘‘Successor’’) included in this Form 10-K represents our consolidated financial position as of December 31, 2006 and 2007 and our consolidated results of operations and cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2005, 2006 and 2007 and reflects the app lication of purchase accounting.

Company Overview

We design, manufacture, and sell body sealing, NVH control and fluid handling components, systems, subsystems, and modules for use in passenger vehicles and light trucks manufactured by global OEMs. In 2007, approximately 80% of our sales consisted of original equipment sold directly to the OEMs for installation on new vehicles. The remaining 20% of our sales were primarily to Tier I and Tier II suppliers. Accordingly, sales of our products are directly affected by the annual vehicle production of OEMs, and in particular the production levels of the vehicles for which we provide specific parts. In most cases, our products are custom designed and engineered for a specific vehicle platform. Our sales and product development personnel frequently work directly with the OEMs’ engineering departments in the design and development of our various products.

Although each OEM may emphasize different requirements as the primary criteria for judging its suppliers, we believe success as an automotive supplier generally requires outstanding performance with respect to price, quality, service, performance, design and engineering capabilities, innovation, and timely delivery. As such, we believe our continued commitment to investment in our engineering and design capability, including enhanced computerized software design capabilities, is important to future success, and many of our present initiatives are designed to enhance these capabilities. To remain competitive we must also consistently achieve cost savings; we believe we will continue to be successful in our efforts to improve our engineering, design and manufacturing processes, and implement our Lean initiatives.

Our OEM sales are generally based upon purchase orders issued by the OEMs and as such we do not have a backlog of orders at any point in time. Once selected to supply products for a particular platform, we typically supply those products for the platform life, which is normally six to eight years, although there is no guarantee that this will occur. In addition, when we are the incumbent supplier to a given platform, we believe we have an advantage in winning the redesign or replacement platform.

We provide parts to virtually every major global OEM for use on a multitude of different platforms. However, we generate a significant portion of our sales from the Detroit 3. For the year ended December 31, 2007, our sales to the global operations of Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler comprised approximately 27%, 20%, and 8% of our net sales, respectively. Significant reduction of our sales to or the loss of any one of these customers or any significant reduction in these customers’ market shares could have a material adverse effect on the financial results of our company.

While approximately 61% of sales are generated in North America, we maintain sales offices in strategic locations throughout the world to provide support and service to our global OEM customers. We continue to expand internationally. In July 2005, we purchased the Atlacomulco hose manufacturing business in Mexico. In the fourth quarter of 2005, we purchased a 20% equity interest in Korea-based Guyoung, a supplier to Korean automotive OEMs, and entered into a Cooperation Agreement with Guyoung in order to expand the customer base of both companies worldwide. In February 2006, we acquired the FHS

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business and included automotive fluid handling business and facilities in Europe, Asia, Mexico, and Australia. In November 2006, we entered into a joint venture agreement with Jingda. This joint venture, known as Cooper-Standard Jingda Automotive Co., Ltd, sells and provides technical support and after-sale service for fluid handling systems, including brake and fuel lines, steering systems, cooling and heating systems and emission control devices. In March of 2007, we completed the acquisition of the El Jarudo business. This business is located in Juarez, Mexico and is a producer of automotive fuel rails. In 2007, a new sealing manufacturing facility was constructed in Poland. This expansion positions us for continued growth in Eastern Europe and is also part of our strategy to selectively relocate facilities to lower cost countries. In August of 2007, we completed the acquisition of MAPS, including nine sealing systems operations in Germany, Italy, Poland, Belarus, and Belgium, and a joint ventu re interest in China. In December of 2007, we completed the acquisition of a 74% joint venture interest in MAP India, a leading manufacturer of automotive sealing products in India.

Historically, our operations in Canada and Western Europe have not presented materially different risks or problems from those we have encountered in the United States, although the cost and complexity of streamlining operations in certain European countries is greater than would be the case in the United States. This is due primarily to labor laws in those countries that can make reducing employment levels more time-consuming and expensive than in the United States. We believe the risks of conducting business in less developed markets, including Brazil, Mexico, Poland, Czech Republic, China, Korea, Belarus and India are sometimes greater than in the U.S., Canadian, and Western European markets. This is due to the potential for currency volatility, high interest, inflation rates, and the general political and economic instability that are associated with these markets.

Business Environment and Outlook

Our business is greatly affected by the automotive build rates in North America and Europe. New vehicle demand is driven by macro-economic and other factors such as interest rates, manufacturer and dealer sales incentives, fuel prices, consumer confidence, and employment and income growth trends. According to CSM Worldwide, light vehicle production in North America is expected to be 14.4 million units in 2008 as compared to 15.1 million units in 2007. European production levels in 2008 are expected to be 22.0 million units as compared to 21.7 million units in 2007. Light vehicle production in South America is expected to increase to 4.0 million units in 2008 from 3.6 million units in 2007. Asia Pacific production levels in 2008 are expected to be 28.6 million units as compared to 26.5 million units in 2007.

Competition in the automotive supplier industry is intense and has increased in recent years as OEMs have demonstrated a preference for stronger relationships with fewer suppliers. There are typically three or more significant competitors and numerous smaller competitors for most of the products we produce, and competition can always arise from new sources. For example, certain of our products have experienced new competition from lower cost imports from Korea and China. We continue to address this challenge with a combination of North American cost reductions and our own Asian sourcing.

Pricing pressure is also prevalent as competition for market share among U.S.-based OEMs, has reduced the overall profitability of the industry and resulted in continued pressure on suppliers for price concessions. The market shares of the Detroit 3, which are our three largest customers, have declined in recent years and may continue to decline in the future. This pricing pressure along with current higher material costs will continue to drive our focus on implementing Lean initiatives to achieve cost savings and selectively consolidate and relocate facilities to optimize our cost structure.

Another trend affecting our business is the global expansion of our customers. Consolidation among the OEMs in recent years has resulted in a smaller number of very large global customers that increasingly require their suppliers to serve them on a global basis. We have expanded our business globally and believe we have the size, geographic breadth, and resources to actively participate in this trend. We have accomplished this via a combination of organic growth, acquisitions and joint ventures, which we believe have ensured that we provide the same high levels of quality, service, and design and engineering support that we provide in our domestic markets.

Lastly, OEMs have shifted some research and development, design, and testing responsibility to suppliers, while at the same time shortening new product cycle times. To remain competitive, suppliers must have

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state-of-the-art engineering and design capabilities and must be able to continuously improve their engineering, design, and manufacturing processes to effectively service the customer. Suppliers are increasingly expected to collaborate on or assume the product design and development of key automotive components, and to provide value added solutions under more stringent time frames.

In the year ended December 31, 2007, our business was negatively impacted by reduced OEM production volumes on certain platforms in North America. According to CSM Worldwide, actual North America and Europe light vehicle production volumes for the year ended December 31, 2007 were 15.1 million and 21.7 million units, respectively, as compared to 15.3 million and 20.4 million units, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2006. Additionally, we continued to experience significant pricing pressure from our customers as well as significant increases in certain raw material prices, especially oil based components, synthetic rubber, and other compounding materials. Our contracts typically do not allow us to pass these price increases on to our customers, although we have had some success incorporating these increases into some commercial negotiations. These negative impacts were partially offset by favorable for eign currency translation. Our performance in 2007 has been, and will continue to be, impacted by changes in light vehicle production volumes, platform mix, customer pricing pressures, and the cost of raw materials.

Results of Operations


  For the Year Ended December 31,
(Dollar amounts in thousands) 2005 2006 2007
Sales $ 1,827,440 $ 2,164,262 $ 2,511,153
Cost of products sold 1,550,265 1,832,027 2,114,039
Gross profit 277,175 332,235 397,114
Selling, administration, & engineering expenses 169,702 199,739 222,134
Amortization of intangibles 28,161 31,025 31,850
Impairment charges 13,247 146,366
Restructuring 3,038 23,905 26,386
Operating profit (loss) 76,274 64,319 (29,622 ) 
Interest expense, net of interest income (66,583 )  (87,147 )  (89,577 ) 
Equity earnings 2,781 179 2,207
Other income (expense) (1,281 )  6,985 (1,055 ) 
Income (loss) before income taxes 11,191 (15,664 )  (118,047 ) 
Provision for income tax expense (benefit) 2,377 (7,244 )  32,946
Net income (loss) $ 8,814 $ (8,420 )  $ (150,993 ) 

Year ended December 31, 2007 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2006

Net Sales:    Our net sales increased from $2,164.3 million in 2006 to $2,511.2 million in 2007, an increase of $346.9 million, or 16.0%. The increase resulted primarily from the acquisition of MAPS and El Jarudo, favorable foreign exchange rates ($86.9 million) and higher unit sales volume partially offset by customer price concessions. In North America, our sales increased by $67.0 million primarily due to the acquisition of El Jarudo and $20.2 million of favorable foreign currency translation, partially offset by lower unit sales volumes and customer price concessions. In our international operations, a sales increase of $279.9 million was attributable to a combination of factors including the acquisition of MAPS, $66.7 million favorable impact of foreign currency translation and higher unit sales volumes pa rtially offset by customer price concessions.

Gross Profit:    Gross profit increased $64.9 million to 15.8% of sales in 2007, as compared to 15.4% of sales in 2006. This increase resulted primarily from the acquisition of MAPS and El Jarudo combined with the favorable impact of various cost saving initiatives and favorable foreign exchange rates, partially offset by customer price concessions and increased material costs.

Operating Profit (Loss):    Operating loss in 2007 was $29.6 million compared to an operating profit reported in 2006, of $64.3 million. This decrease is primarily due to the impairment charges of

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$146.4 million and an increase in selling, administration and engineering expenses primarily due to the acquisitions of MAPS and El Jarudo, partially offset by gross profit increase of $64.9 million.

Impairment Charges:    In 2007 we recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $142.9 million and write off charges of $3.5 million related to certain intangible assets within the North America Fluid reporting unit of our Fluid segment. These charges result from a recent and projected decline in anticipated production volumes and a change in the production mix for certain key platforms in North America since the 2004 acquisition as well as the impact of recent increases in material costs and customer price concessions in North America. In 2006, as a result of operating results in the Body & Chassis reportable segment, we recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $7.5 million and impairment charges of $5.8 million related to certain developed technology intangible assets. The impairment was recognized in our NVH segment in 2006 . During 2007 we revised our segments and the NVH segment was combined with the Sealing segment to create the Body & Chassis segment.

Interest Expense, net:    Interest expense increased by $2.4 million in 2007, primarily due to increased indebtedness resulting from the acquisition of MAPS and amortization of issuance costs associated with such borrowings.

Other Income (Expense):    Other expense was $1.1 million in 2007 as a result of foreign currency losses of $0.5 million and minority interest expense of $0.6 million. Other income of $7.0 million in 2006 was primarily a result of a $4.1 million net gain related to the purchase of Senior Subordinated Notes, foreign exchange gains of $3.8 million, offset by a minority interest loss of $0.9 million.

Provision for Income Tax Expense (Benefit):    Income taxes changed from a benefit of 7.2 million for an effective rate 46.2% in 2006 to an income tax expense of $32.9 million for an effective rate of (27.9%) in 2007. Tax expense in 2007 is primarily a result of the nondeductible nature of the goodwill impairment charge; valuation allowances recorded on tax losses and credits generated in the U.S.; tax rate changes enacted during 2007 in the Czech Republic, Canada, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom resulting in additional expense related to the impact of deferred taxes recorded in those jurisdictions; the distribution of income between the U.S. and foreign sources; and other non-recurring discrete items. In 2006, the Company provided a benefit for net operating losses in the U.S. until that point when deferred tax assets exceeded the related liab ilities and the recoverability was no longer assured beyond a reasonable doubt.

Year ended December 31, 2006 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2005

Net Sales:    Our net sales increased from $1,827.4 million in 2005 to $2,164.3 million in 2006, an increase of $336.8 million, or 18.4%. The increase resulted primarily from the acquisition of FHS and favorable foreign exchange rates ($36.5 million), partially offset by lower unit sales volumes in North America and customer price concessions. In North America, our sales increased by $209.7 million primarily due to the acquisition of FHS and $21.7 million of favorable foreign currency translation, partially offset by lower unit sales volumes and customer price concessions. In our international operations, a sales increase of $127.1 million was attributable to the acquisition of FHS and $14.8 million favorable impact of foreign currency translation, partially offset by lower unit sales volumes on certain platfor ms and customer price concessions.

Gross Profit:    Gross profit increased $55.1 million to 15.4% of sales in 2006, as compared to 15.2% of sales in 2005. This increase resulted primarily from the acquisition of FHS combined with the favorable impact of various cost saving initiatives, partially offset by customer price concessions and increased material costs.

Operating Profit:    Operating profit in 2006 was $12.0 million lower than the operating profit reported in 2005, decreasing from $76.3 million to $64.3 million. This is primarily due to impairment of Body & Chassis segment ($13.2 million), increased restructuring costs ($20.9 million) and amortization of intangibles ($2.9 million), as well as increased selling, administration, and engineering expenses ($30.0 million). Such items were partially offset by gross profit increase of $55.1 million. Selling, administration, and engineering expenses were higher in 2006 by 17.7%, primarily due to the inclusion of FHS, partially offset by cost savings and restructuring initiatives.

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Amortization of Intangibles:    Amortization increased by $2.9 million in 2006 due to the amortization of intangible assets recorded as a result of the acquisition of FHS.

Impairment Charges:    As a result of declining operating results in our Body & Chassis reportable segment, we recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $7.5 million and impairment charges of $5.8 million related to Body & Chassis developed technology intangible assets. The impairment was recognized in our NVH segment in 2006. During 2007 we revised our segments and the NVH segment was combined with the Sealing segment to create the Body & Chassis segment.

Interest Expense, net:    Interest expense increased by $20.6 million in 2006, primarily due to indebtedness used to finance the acquisition of FHS and amortization of issuance costs associated with such borrowings.

Other Income (Expense):    Other income was $7.0 million in 2006 as compared to an expense of $1.3 million in 2005. This was primarily due to a $4.1 million net gain related to the purchase of Senior Subordinated Notes and the increased foreign exchange gain of $3.9 million.

Provision for Income Tax Expense (Benefit):    Our effective tax rate changed from an expense of 21.2% in 2005 to a benefit of 46.2% in 2006 due primarily to the mix of earnings between jurisdictions in which tax benefits on taxable losses can be realized and jurisdictions in which they can not be realized and the benefit of tax credits.

Segment Results of Operations


  For the Year Ended December 31,
(Dollar amounts in thousands) 2005 2006 2007
Sales      
Body & Chassis $ 1,144,024 $ 1,100,390 $ 1,317,621
Fluid 588,820 971,122 1,096,944
Asia Pacific(1) 94,596 92,750 96,588
  $ 1,827,440 $ 2,164,262 $ 2,511,153
Segment profit (loss)      
Body & Chassis $ (7,598 )  $ (26,108 )  $ 33,993
Fluid 22,154 19,173 (137,913 ) 
Asia Pacific(1) (3,365 )  (8,729 )  (14,127 ) 
  $ 11,191 $ (15,664 )  $ (118,047 ) 
(1) The Asia Pacific segment consists of both Body & Chassis and Fluid products in that region with the exception of the joint venture with Shanghai SAIC, which was purchased as part of the MAPS acquisition and the MAP India joint venture. These joint ventures are included in the Body & Chassis segment which is in line with the internal management structure.

Year Ended December 31, 2007 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2006

Body & Chassis:    Sales increased $217.2 million, or 19.7%, primarily due to the acquisition of MAPS, higher sales volumes and favorable foreign exchange ($47.6 million), partially offset by customer price concessions. Segment profit increased by $60.1 million as the result of favorable impact of various cost savings initiatives and the acquisition of MAPS, partially offset by higher raw material costs and customer price concessions.

Fluid:    Sales increased $125.8 million, or 13.0%, primarily due to the acquisition of El Jarudo, the full year impact of the FHS acquisition, higher sales volumes, and favorable foreign exchange ($37.5 million), partially offset by customer price concessions. Segment profit decreased by $157.1 million as the result of impairment charges related to goodwill in the North America reporting unit ($142.9 million), and intangible assets ($3.5 million), customer price concessions, higher raw material costs, and increased restructuring costs ($4.3 million). Such items were partially offset by the inclusion of El Jarudo, favorable foreign exchange, and the favorable impact of various cost savings initiatives.

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Asia Pacific:    Sales increased $3.8 million, or 4.1%, primarily due to favorable foreign exchange ($1.8 million) and higher sales volume, partially offset by customer price concessions. Segment loss increased by $5.4 million as a result of start up related costs for operations in this region, partially offset by the favorable impact of various cost savings initiatives.

Year Ended December 31, 2006 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2005

Body & Chassis:    Sales decreased $43.6 million, or 3.8%, primarily due to lower sales volumes and customer price concessions, partially offset by favorable foreign exchange ($28.6 million). Segment loss increased by $18.5 million as the result of higher raw material costs, customer price concessions, lower sales volumes, increased restructuring of ($16.7 million) and impairment of goodwill ($7.5 million) and developed technology ($5.8 million), partially offset by the favorable impact of various cost savings initiatives.

Fluid:    Sales increased $382.3 million, or 64.9%, primarily due to the acquisition of FHS, higher sales volumes, and favorable foreign exchange ($5.1 million), partially offset by customer price concessions. Segment profit decreased by $3.0 million as the result of increased restructuring costs ($4.4 million), and amortization of intangible assets recorded as a result of the acquisition of FHS ($2.0 million). Such items are partially offset by the inclusion of FHS, favorable foreign exchange, and the favorable impact of various cost savings initiatives.

Asia Pacific:    Sales decreased $1.8 million, or 2.0%, primarily due to lower sales volume, partially offset by favorable foreign exchange ($2.8 million). Segment loss increased by $5.4 million as the result of customer price concessions, partially offset by the favorable impact of various cost savings initiatives.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We have provided a guarantee of a portion of the bank loans made to NISCO, our joint venture with Nishikawa Rubber Company. This debt guarantee is required of the partners by the joint-venture agreement and serves to support the credit-worthiness of NISCO. On July 1, 2003, NISCO entered into an additional bank loan with the joint venture partners each guaranteeing an equal portion of the amount borrowed. In accordance with FASB Interpretation No. 45, ‘‘Guarantor’s Accounting and Disclosure Requirements for Guarantees, Including Indirect Guarantees of Indebtedness of Others,’’ guarantees meeting the characteristics described in the Interpretation are required to be recorded at fair value. Our maximum exposure under the guarantee arrangements at December 31, 2007 was $0.5 million.

As of December 31, 2007 we had no other material off-balance sheet arrangements.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Operating Activities:    Cash flow provided by operations was $185.4 million in 2007, which included $9.9 million of changes in operating assets and liabilities. Cash flow provided by operations was $135.9 million in 2006, which included $2.4 million of changes in operating assets and liabilities. We anticipate that cash flows from operations for the next twelve months will be positive and will exceed our projected capital expenditures and working capital needs.

Investing Activities:    Cash used in investing activities was $260.0 million in 2007, which primarily consisted of acquisition cost of $158.7 million related to the acquisitions of El Jarudo, MAPS, and MAP India, capital spending of $107.3 million, less $4.8 million received from a sale leaseback transaction. This compared to $281.8 million in 2006, which primarily consisted of acquisition cost of $201.6 million related to the acquisition of FHS, capital spending of $82.9 million, reduced by $7.7 million received from NISCO as return on capital. We anticipate that we will spend approximately $125.0 million on capital expenditures in 2008.

Financing Activities:    Net cash provided by financing activities totaled $55.0 million in 2007 as compared to net cash provided by financing activities of $147.6 million in 2006. The 2007 cash provided by financing activities was primarily comprised of proceeds from issuance of acquisition-related debt of $60.0 million, proceeds from issuance of stock of $30.0 million and a net increase of short term debt of $6.2 million,

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partially offset by normal debt repayments and voluntary prepayments on our term loans of $37.6 million and $3.1 million of debt issuance costs. The 2006 cash flow provided by financing activities was primarily comprised of proceeds from issuance of acquisition-related debt of $214.9 million, partially offset by normal debt payments and voluntary prepayments on our term loans of $46.8 million, the repurchase of a portion of the Senior Subordinated Notes for $14.9 million and $4.3 million of debt issuance costs.

Since the consummation of the 2004 Acquisition, we have been significantly leveraged. As of December 31, 2007, we have $1,140.2 million outstanding in aggregate indebtedness, with an additional $100.9 million of borrowing capacity available under our revolving credit facilities (after giving effect to $24.1 million of outstanding letters of credit). Our future liquidity requirements will likely be significant, primarily due to debt service obligations. Future debt service obligations may include required prepayments from annual excess cash flows, as defined, under our senior credit agreement commencing with the year ended December 31, 2008, which would be due 5 days after the filing of the Form 10-K, or in connection with specific transactions, such as certain asset sales and the incurrence of debt not permitted under the senior credit agreement.

Senior Credit Facilities.    Our senior credit facilities consist of revolving credit facilities and term loan facilities. Our revolving credit facilities provide for loans in a total principal amount of up to $125.0 million with a maturity of 2010. The senior credit facilities include a Term Loan A facility of the Canadian dollar equivalent of $51.3 million with a maturity of 2010, a Term Loan B facility of $115.0 million with a maturity of December 2011 and a Term Loan C facility of $185.0 million with a maturity of December 2011. The term loans were used to fund the 2004 Acquisition. As described below the Company also has a Term Loan D and Term Loan E facility.

The borrowings under the senior credit facilities denominated in US dollars bear interest at a rate equal to an applicable margin plus, at our or the Canadian Borrower’s option, as applicable, either (a) a base rate determined by reference to the higher of (1) the prime rate of Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas (or another bank of recognized standing reasonably selected by Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas) and (2) the federal funds rate plus 0.5% or (b) LIBOR rate determined by reference to the costs of funds for deposits in US dollars for the interest period relevant to such borrowing adjusted for certain additional costs. Borrowings under the senior credit facilities denominated in Canadian dollars bear interest at a rate equal to an applicable margin plus, at the Canadian Borrower’s option, either (a) an adjusted Canadian prime rate determined by reference to the higher of (1) the prime rate of Deutsche Bank AG, Canada Branch for comme rcial loans made in Canada in Canadian dollars and (2) the average rate per annum for Canadian dollar bankers’ acceptances having a term of 30 days that appears of Reuters Screen CDOR Page plus 0.75% or (b) bankers’ acceptances rate determined by reference to the average discount rate on bankers’ acceptances as quoted on Reuters Screen CDOR Page or as quoted by certain Canadian reference lenders.

In addition to paying interest on outstanding principal under the senior credit facilities, we are required to pay a commitment fee to the lenders under the revolving credit facilities in respect of the unutilized commitments thereunder at a rate equal to 0.50% per annum. We also pay customary letter of credit fees.

The Term Loan B facility and the Term Loan C facility amortize each year in an amount equal to 1% per annum in equal quarterly installments for the first six years and nine months, with the remaining amount payable on the date that is seven years from the date of the closing of the senior credit facilities. During 2007 we made voluntary prepayments totaling $15.0 million on the Term Loan B facility and $7.0 million on the Term Loan C facility. The Term Loan A facility amortizes in equal quarterly installments of C$1.538 million in 2005 and 2006, C$2.308 million in 2007 and 2008, and C$3.846 million in 2009 and 2010.

On February 6, 2006, in conjunction with the closing of the FHS acquisition, we amended our Senior Credit Facilities and closed on Term Loan D with a notional amount of $215.0 million. The amount of the additional term loan was based on the purchase price of the acquisition and anticipated transaction costs. Term Loan D matures on December 23, 2011 and carries terms and conditions similar to those found in the remainder of our Term B and C Facilities. Term Loan D was structured as two tranches, $190.0 million borrowed in U.S. dollars, and €20.7 million borrowed in Euros. The financing was split between currencies to take into consideration the value of the European assets acquired in the FHS transaction.

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The Senior Credit Facilities contain a number of covenants that, among other things, restrict, subject to certain exceptions, our ability, and the ability of our subsidiaries, to sell assets; incur additional indebtedness or issue preferred stock; repay other indebtedness (including the notes); pay certain dividends and distributions or repurchase our capital stock; create liens on assets; make investments, loans, or advances; make certain acquisitions; engage in mergers or consolidations; enter into sale and leaseback transactions; engage in certain transactions with affiliates; amend certain material agreements governing our indebtedness, including the exchange notes; and change the business conducted by us and our subsidiaries.

On July 26, 2007, the Company entered into the Second Amendment to the Credit Agreement (the ‘‘Amendment’’), among Holdings, the Company, Cooper-Standard Automotive Canada Limited, a corporation organized under the laws of Ontario, Cooper-Standard International Holdings BV, a corporation organized under the laws of the Netherlands, the lenders party thereto, Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas, as administrative agent, Lehman Commercial Paper Inc., as syndication agent, and Goldman Sachs Credit Partners, L.P., UBS Securities LLC and The Bank of Nova Scotia, as co-documentation agents. The Amendment permitted the MAPS acquisition and allows the Company to borrow up to €65.0 million through an incremental term loan under the Credit Agreement (as amended) to provide a portion of the funding necessary for the MAPS Acquisition and to pay related fees and expenses. The A mendment also expands the dual currency borrowing sub limit under the Revolving Credit Agreement to $35.0 million and adds Cooper-Standard International Holdings BV as a permitted borrower under this sub limit. The amendment includes other changes which increase the Company’s financial and operating flexibility, including amended financial covenants, expanded debt and investment baskets, and the ability to include the results of our non-consolidated joint ventures in the covenant calculations, among other things.

To finance part of the MAPS acquisition the Company borrowed €44.0 million under the Amendment discussed above. This borrowing was combined with the Euro tranche of the Term Loan D to create Term Loan E and as of December 31, 2007 had an outstanding balance of €64.1 million. The Company also borrowed $10.0 million under the Primary Revolving Credit Agreement, which was repaid in its entirety by September 30, 2007. In addition the Company borrowed €15.0 million under the dual-currency sub limit of the revolver, which was repaid in its entirety as of December 31, 2007.

Senior Notes and Senior Subordinated Notes

Our outstanding 7% Senior Notes due 2012 (the ‘‘Senior Notes’’) were issued under an Indenture, dated December 23, 2004 (the ‘‘Senior Indenture’’). Our 8 3/8% Senior Subordinated Notes (the ‘‘Senior Subordinated Notes’’) were also issued under an Indenture, dated December 23, 2004 (the ‘‘Subordinated Indenture’’ and, together with the Senior Indenture, the ‘‘Indentures’’). During 2006 we repurchased $19.5 million notional amount of our Senior Subordinated Notes for $14.9 million.

Interest on the Senior Notes accrues at the rate of 7% per annum and is payable semiannually in arrears on June 15 and December 15, commencing on June 15, 2005. The Company makes each interest payment to the holders of record of the Senior Notes on the immediately preceding June 1 and December 1.

Interest on the Senior Subordinated Notes accrues at the rate of 8 3/8% per annum and is payable semiannually in arrears on June 15 and December 15, commencing on June 15, 2005. The Company makes each interest payment to the holders of record of the Senior Subordinated Notes on the immediately preceding June 1 and December 1.

The indebtedness evidenced by the Senior Notes (a) is unsecured senior indebtedness of the Company, (b) ranks pari passu in right of payment with all existing and future senior indebtedness of the Company, and (c) is senior in right of payment to all existing and future Subordinated Obligations (as used in respect of the Senior Notes) of the Company. The Senior Notes are also effectively subordinated to all secured indebtedness and other liabilities (including trade payables) of the Company to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness, and to all indebtedness of its Subsidiaries (other than the subsidiaries that guarantee the Senior Notes).

The Indebtedness evidenced by the Senior Subordinated Notes is unsecured senior subordinated indebtedness of the Company, is subordinated in right of payment, as set forth in the Subordinated

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Indenture, to the prior payment in full in cash or temporary cash investments when due of all existing and future senior indebtedness of the Company, including the Company’s obligations under the Senior Notes and the Credit Agreement, ranks pari passu in right of payment with all existing and future senior subordinated indebtedness of the Company, and is senior in right of payment to all existing and future Subordinated Obligations (as used in respect of the Senior Subordinated Notes) of the Company. The Senior Subordinated Notes are also effectively subordinated to any secured indebtedness of the Company to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness, and to all indebtedness and other liabilities (including trade payables) of the Company’s subsidiaries (other than the subsidiaries that guarantee the Senior Subordinated Notes).

Under each Indenture, upon the occurrence of any ‘‘change of control’’ (as defined in each Indenture), unless the Company has exercised its right to redeem all of the outstanding Notes of each holder of Notes of the applicable series shall have the right to require that the Company repurchase such noteholder’s Notes of such series at a purchase price in cash equal to 101% of the principal amount thereof on the date of purchase plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the date of purchase (subject to the right of the applicable Noteholders of record on the relevant record date to receive interest due on the relevant interest payment date). The change of control purchase feature of the Notes may in certain circumstances make more difficult or discourage a sale or takeover of the Company and, thus, the removal of incumbent management.

The Credit Agreement provides that the occurrence of certain change of control events with respect to us would constitute a default thereunder. The Company, its directors, officers, employees or affiliates may, from time-to-time, purchase or sell Senior Notes or Senior Subordinated Notes on the open market, subject to limits as specified in the credit agreement and, with respect to purchases of senior subordinated notes, limits in the senior notes indenture.

The Indentures governing the Senior Notes and Senior Subordinated Notes limit our (and most or all of our subsidiaries’) ability to:

  incur additional indebtedness;
  pay dividends on or make other distributions or repurchase our capital stock;
  make certain investments;
  enter into certain types of transactions with affiliates;
  use assets as security in other transactions; and
  sell certain assets or merge with or into other companies.

Subject to certain exceptions, the Indentures governing the Senior Notes and Senior Subordinated Notes permit us and our restricted subsidiaries to incur additional indebtedness, including secured indebtedness.

Our compliance with certain of the covenants contained in the indentures governing the notes and in our senior credit agreement is determined based on financial ratios that are derived using our reported EBITDA, as adjusted for unusual items and certain other contingencies described in those agreements. The breach of such covenants in our senior credit agreement could result in a default under that agreement and the lenders could elect to declare all amounts borrowed due and payable. Any such acceleration would also result in a default under our indentures. Additionally, under our debt agreements, our ability to engage in activities such as incurring additional indebtedness, making investments, and paying dividends is limited, with exceptions that are either partially tied to similar financial ratios (in the case of the notes indentures) or are based on negotiated carveouts and baskets (in the case of the credit agreement). We refer to EBITDA as adjusted un der the indentures as Indentures EBITDA and EBITDA as adjusted under the senior credit agreement as Consolidated EBITDA.

We believe that the inclusion of supplementary adjustments to EBITDA applied in presenting Consolidated EBITDA are appropriate to provide additional information to investors to demonstrate compliance with our financing covenants. However, EBITDA and Consolidated EBITDA are not recognized terms under GAAP and do not purport to be alternatives to net income as a measure of operating performance. Additionally, EBITDA and Consolidated EBITDA are not intended to be

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measures of free cash flow for management’s discretionary use, as they do not consider certain cash requirements such as interest payments, tax payments, debt service requirements, and capital expenditures. Because not all companies use identical calculations, these presentations of EBITDA and Consolidated EBITDA may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies.

The following table reconciles net income to EBITDA and pro forma Indentures EBITDA under the credit agreement (dollars in millions):


  Year Ended
December 31,
2005
Year Ended
December 31,
2006
Year Ended
December 31,
2007
Net income (loss) $ 8.8 $ (8.4 )  $ (151.0 ) 
Provision for income tax expense (benefit) 2.4 (7.2 )  32.9
Interest expense, net of interest income 66.6 87.1 89.6
Depreciation and amortization 111.2 138.4 136.0
EBITDA $ 189.0 $ 209.9 $ 107.5
Restructuring 3.0 23.9 26.4
Foreign exchange gain(1) (1.6 )  (2.9 )  (0.1 ) 
Inventory write-up(2) 9.8 2.1